CBT What is it?


CBT is a model of therapy that focuses on changing behaviour and thinking. There is a generic model of CBT but there are specific treatments for different mental health problems. CBT initially was popularised as a treatment for depression, however, it is now frequently used with a wide variety of mental health issues tailored for a specific diagnosis.

Early in the 20th-century Behavioural therapy was developed. Later a focus on habits of thinking especially negative-automatic-thoughts and limiting-core-beliefs was found to be very effective. More recently integrative ways of working in therapy allow for the use of CBT techniques where they are considered appropriate as part of an individualised way of working with clients.

Background to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy – Three Phases

Phase 1:  Development of Behavioural Therapy


Phase 2:

a) Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy

Developed into Rational Emotive Behavioural therapy REB


b) Aaron T. Beck Cognitive Therapy

Developed into Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT


NATS Negative Automatic Thoughts http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2zRA5zCA6M

ABC of CBT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvgtwMCaIcU

Beck and NATS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=forBNxCjii8


c) William Glasser – Choice Theory and Reality Therapy


Phase 3:

a) Schema Therapy associated with Jeffrey Young

Schemas are organized pattern of thought and behaviour, a mental structure of preconceived ideas etc. Therapy focuses on maladaptive schemas


b) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) associated with Stephen Hayes

Accept what is out of our control; Commit to action that improves and enriches your life


c) Mindfulness associated with Jon Kabat Zinn


MBCT (Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy) is a model of therapy widely used in psychiatric setting with patients whose mental health conditions are controlled with drug therapies. MBCT has been found to be effective in reducing relapse because it provides self-help techniques that can be learned and deployed on a regular basis.


Conclusion of Course

This evening I will give you some print notes based on our discussions of personality and psychotherapy. We will also go into a little more depth about Carl Jung. Here is a great resource I found online that I think may be a good place to start if you’re interested in Carl Jung’s theory. Knowing yourself is a key theme in Jungian psychology and that involves an understand that all humans share a common nature that involves a fascinating mind through which we experience many levels of consciousness from dreams, to meditation and trance states and flow states, to everydayness and group consciousness. Jung was probably the first psychologist who began to explore this array of levels of consciousness which are the key to self-knowledge. Research in positive psychology indicates that knowing our strengths and working with our strengths is a very positive experience that can influence our happiness and contentment with life.

Here is a great link



Reflections – problem-solving session

Wednesday 21 February 2018 11:05

In the exercise, exploring Problem-solving, I attempted to adapt a working-forward (as opposed to goal-oriented) model of problem-solving to the R (positive Relationships) in PERMA. The session was a bit problem focused although the aim was to focus more on solutions. Nonetheless, it seemed to be a useful exercise.


After the break, we attempted to work through a problem-solving exercise. First, we chose an annoying neighbour and I told my little anecdotes about my own experiences. Dealing with annoyances is a normal part of life and we all must get on with each other. However, stories abound about how some minor dispute with a neighbour can escalate into something much more serious. Note that conflicts have a tendency to escalate, and if we fail to deal effectively with the situation, a simple case of annoyance can turn into something quite serious. It’s also important to note that there are true stories about ‘neighbours from hell’ but those are extreme situations where outside help is always essential. In such extreme situations, a simple conflict can escalate to violence.


We also had a scenario about a young couple with jealousy as an issue. Clearly, that was a much more tricky situation, because there are so many variables in romantic relationships. Finding solutions to such problems can be unique and personalised. However, like the annoying neighbour, most cases of jealousy are quite everyday occurrences and can often be resolved effectively. However, there are extreme situations where jealousy can lead to serious and even life-threatening situations. Conflicts can escalate to violence. Domestic violence is much more widespread than most people imagine.

Finding creative solutions to Everyday Challenges

Here is a PDF of the slides. Note that the focus of the solution-focused problem-solving exercise is a working forward model of problem-solving that is solution focused and adaptable to personal preference. It’s a good approach in order to creatively enhance our everyday lives and solve everyday people problems.

In business, a more goal-oriented approach to problem-solving is often preferred. This is often seen as the gold-standard but it’s not always the best approach in personalising and choosing solutions that move us closer to our dreams.

Note that according to the findings of Cognitive Psychology research, experts are more likely to adopt a working-forward approach to problem-solving than novices who find a goal-oriented model more reliable when problems are clearly defined. In everyday life, we often need more creative solutions to enhance our lives.

Here are the  slides 
Problem solving

Here is the link to the goal-oriented model.